Pakistan A Moderate, Progressive, Islamic Nation State
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire on 14th August 1947. On the division of the sub continent into two independent states of India and Pakistan after a struggle for independence for the Muslim majority populations of the eastern and western regions of British India by Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who is also the founder and the father of the nation. With the adoption of its constitution in 1956, Pakistan became an Islamic republic. However in 1971 a civil war in East Pakistan resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. The seat of the federal government is based in the city of Islamabad, which is the Republic’s capital.
Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. It is the only Muslim-majority State to possess Nuclear Weapons. With over 170 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world and has the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife. With a semi-industrialized economy, it is the 27th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power, however it continues to face major socioeconomic, political and security challenges, including increasing extremism and terrorism.
Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed force and a nuclear weapons state. Its history has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighboring India.Pakistan is designated as a major non-NATO ally of the United States. It is a founding member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, Next Eleven economies and the G20 developing nations.
Geographically Pakistan is located in South Asia. It has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and the China in the far northeast. Tajikistan also lies very close to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Strategically it is located in a position between the important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East.
The region forming modern Pakistan was the site several ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the bronze era Indus Valley Civilization. Subsequently it was the recipient of Vedic, Persian, Indo-Greek, Islamic, Turco-Mongol, and Sikh cultures through several invasions and/or settlements. As a result the area has remained a part of numerous empires and dynasties including the Persian empires, Islamic caliphates and the Mongol, Mughal, Sikh and British Empires.
Despite having an image problem, and once listed as one of the most dangerous countries in the world, Pakistan because of its diverse cultures, peoples and landscapes, is still a major tourist attraction. The variety of attractions range from the ruins of ancient civilizations such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill-stations, that attract those interested in field and winter sports. Pakistan also has five out of fourteen mountain peaks of height over 8,000 metres (26,250 ft), that attract adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially to K2.
In Balochistan there are many caves for cavers and tourists to visit especially the Juniper Shaft Cave, the Murghagull Gharra cave, Mughall saa cave, and Pakistan's naturally decorated cave, the Mangocher Cave. Pakistan is a member country of the Union International de Spéléologie (UIS).
The northern parts of Pakistan are home to several historical fortresses, towers and other architecture including the Hunza and Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the Kalash, a small pre-Islamic Animist community. Punjab is also the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River. The historic city of Lahore is considered Pakistan's cultural centre and has many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) also helps promote tourism in the country. Pakistan receives 500,000 tourists annually, with almost half of them heading to northern Pakistan.
Pakistan - Facts
Quote Of Quaid
So said the Quaid
"The people of Pakistan desire nothing which is not their own, nothing more than the good-will and friendship of the free nations of the world. We in Pakistan are determined that having won our long-lost freedom we will work to the utmost limit of our capacity not only to build up a strong and happy state of our own but to contribute in the fullest possible measure to international peace and prosperity."
26th February, 1948.
Official Name Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Founder of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)
Head of State Mamnoon Hussain, President
Head of Government Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister
Chairman Senate Mr. Farooq Hamid Naek
Speaker National Assembly Dr. Fehmida Mirza
|Population 165 million (estimated)-132 million (1998 census) |
Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz., Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa , Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. The tribal belt adjoining Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa is managed by the Federal Government and is named FATA i.e., Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own respective political and administrative machinery, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. Provinces of Pakistan are further divided into Districts.
Religion 95% Muslims, 5% others.
Annual per capita income US $1085
GDP 5.8% Currency Pak. Rupee.
Imports Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea.
Exports Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, handi-crafts, fish and fish prep. and fruit
Languages Urdu (National) and English (Official) Literacy rate 53%
Government Parliamentary form
Parliament consists of two Houses i.e., Senate (Upper House) and National Assembly (Lower House).
The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolizes a process of continuity in the national affairs. It consists of 100 members. The four Provincial Assemblies, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Federal Capital form its electoral college.
The National Assembly has a total membership of 342 elected through adult suffrage (272 general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-Muslim seats).
Pakistan National Flag Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle. The Flag symbolizes Pakistan's profound commitment to Islam, the Islamic world and the rights of religious minorities.
National Anthem Approved in August, 1954
State Emblem The State Emblem consists of:
1. The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam
Pakistan's Official Map Drawn by Mian Mahmood Alam Suhrawardy (1920-1999)
National Flower Jasmine. National Tree Deodar (Cedrus Deodara).
National Animal Markhor. National Bird Chakor (Red-legged partridge)
Flora Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry
Fauna The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buck, Neelgai, Markhor, Marco-Polo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Waterfowls
Popular games Cricket, Hockey, Football, Squash.
Tourist's resorts Murree, Quetta, Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit
Archaeological sites Moenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehr Garh, Takht Bhai.
Major Cities Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Sialkot
Major Crops Cotton, Wheat, Rice and Sugarcane
Agricultural Growth Rate 4.1 % on the average for the last six years--1.5% in 2007-08
Total cropped area 25.01 million hectares
Industry Textiles, Cement, Fertiliser, Steel, Sugar, Electric Goods, Shipbuilding